Original Research

The migration and evolution of floras in the southern hemisphere

P. H. Raven
Bothalia | Vol 14, No 3/4 | a1176 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.4102/abc.v14i3/4.1176 | © 1983 P. H. Raven | This work is licensed under CC Attribution 4.0
Submitted: 31 October 1983 | Published: 06 November 1983

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P. H. Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden, United States

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As modern groups of angiosperms have appeared over a period of more than 80 million years, the relative position of the southern continents has changed. For the First 20 m.y. of this period, opportunities for migration were good between Africa and Europe, and this constituted the main pathway for migration between the northern and southern hemispheres. South America progressively moved away from Africa and towards North America over the past 90 m.y. Southern South America and Australasia shared a rich, warm temperate rainforest flora until about 40 m.y. ago. The development of modern climates during the past 10 m.y. has set up modern patterns of vegetation.


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